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Introduction

Egg is considered as one of the best, most complete and highly used sources of food for human through the world in a manner that it holds the second position after breast milk. Egg is consisted from shell (11-9%), yolk (25-33%), white (56-64%).. The yolk is consisted from water (89-91%), protein (16-17%), fat (31-32%) and carbohydrate (0.2-1%) while white is consisted form water (80%), protein (0.4%) and carbohydrate (0.4%). Fatty acids in egg are in the form of triglyceride and phospholipid. Egg fatty acids chain length changes in the range of 14-22 carbons. Fatty acids appear in the form of saturated and unsaturated of one or few multiple bands. Palmitic acid and Stearic acids are found in the egg as saturated fatty acids (8-10% and 22-26%). Palmitolitic acid and Oleic acid are dominantly found in egg as unsaturated fatty acids (42-46%). Cholesterol and Lecithin are fatty materials in the yolk, necessary for body cell structure and function. Cholesterol maintains the flexibility and permeability of body cell membrane. As well as one fat forming components it softens the skin. Cholesterol is necessary in formation of cortisol hormone (suprarenal glands hormone) vitamin D and biliary salts in body. According to recommendations by USA Heart Association, each healthy man can take one egg per day. As well the association believes that cholesterol in the egg is not the reason of heart diseases. One egg has, as an average, 76 Kcal of energy in it and taking one egg per day supplies 3% of energy requirement in an adult man and 4% of energy consumption in an adult woman. Egg protein is consisted form Ovalbumin (54%), Ovotransferrin (12%), Ovomucoid (11%), Ovomucin (5.3%) and Lysozyme (5.3%). Egg protein has very high biologic value and is richer than other sources of protein like dairy, meat and cereals. So taking egg with other protein weak food stuffs such as bread, rice and cereal would complete food protein value. Nutritionists compare other food proteins with the egg and consider it a complete or standard source of protein. Egg contains all necessary amino acids required for structure and metabolism of body cells. It contains all required salts for the person health. It especially is a very good source of Iodine and Phosphor. Iodine is necessary for making thyroid hormone and phosphor is necessary for better bone growth and health. Other important salts in the egg are: Zinc, Selenium, Iron and Calcium. Zinc improves the wound, puberty and growth and removes infection. Selenium is an important antioxidant and free radicals from selenium delete incomplete metabolism of fats in body, playing a role in fighting with carcinogenic factors. Calcium is necessary for better performance of nervous system, better bone growth and strength. Egg contain most of vitamins with the exception of Vitamin C. Egg is a good source of group B vitamins and vitamin A. As well it contain enough and required amount of vitamin D and E .

Total calorie 247 Calorie from fat 217
Value 1 Daily intake %
Total fat 24 g 37%
Saturated fatty acids 8g 38%
Trans fatty acids -
Cholesterol 1028 mg 343%
Sodium 340 mg 14%
Total carbohydrate 2 g 1%
Sugar 2 g 0%
Fiber 0 g -
Protein 31 g -
Vitamin A 24%
Vitamin C 0%
Daily intake is calculated for 2000 cal diet. Daily intake may be different for each person depending the received calorie.



Industry Consumption Performance
Flour products Production of bread, cake, pastry, biscuit Increased volume, bulging, emulsifier, flavor and color, coagulation, increased nutrition value and improvement of the capacity to be machine prepared
Traditional cookies Types of tamarisk and sweetmeat Bulging and emulsifier
Dairy products Ice cream, frozen dessert Improvement of texture, decreased boiling point, deletion of crystallization
Confectionary Light pastries, fondant, kernels Improved internal texture, stabilizers, increased nutritional value, flavor and taste
Sauces Production of different mayonnaise and salad sauce Connection between sauce ingredients as emulsifier when mixing water and oil
Beverages Enrichment of fruit juice, different beverages and diet beverages Increased creamy texture, limpidity of wine and fruit juice
Fast foods Production of different ready-to-cook, frozen and light foods, making infant food, Improvement of texture and microwave freezing/defrosting
Meat products Sausage, salami, hamburger Coagulating, connecting
Different shampoo - Tonics

Egg uses:
Benefits of using pasteurized liquid egg:

  • Quality
  • Pasteurized liquid egg products are similar to fresh egg in terms of nutritional value, flavor and properties
  • Can be refrigerated for some days and even some month by adding preservatives, with the capability to be kept frozen
  • Separated product would give better result in practice
  • Products are completely homogenous
  • Health
  • Pasteurized products are completely hygienic and free form any harmful bacteria

Pasteurization of egg prevent human diseases by elimination of important pathogenic factors including Salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, stuff Ureous, yeasts and molds prevent human contamination

  • Consumer industries would be safe from Trans contamination for lack of egg shell
  • Egg shell collection and disposal charges are decreased and risk of environment pollution is deleted
  • Can be refrigerated for some days and even some month by adding preservatives, with the capability to be kept frozen
  • Productivity/comfortable
  • Is directly used in products
  • There is no problem in mixing yolk and the white in processing
  • Can be easily transported and stored
  • Can be easily added to other materials
  • Economic/Financial
  • Less human force and transportation charges
  • Decreased damages from egg being stuck internally after breaking process by hand which result in saving egg consumption rate for 20%
  • More productivity from mechanical separation of yolk and whit
  • Decreased damages in the process of transportation
  • Decreased storage space and using vertical storage
  • Washing and detergents are not necessary

Egg properties in food industries:

  • Coagulation: Thermal coagulation result in changes in egg protein structure (white and yolk) changing liquid egg to solid of semi-solid material. By hydrogen bridges between proteins, long protein chains create three-dimensional network which is developed to in a manner that it can easily keep water statically. Formed gel has relatively high viscosity, flexibility and elasticity. This property is used in joining different materials in meat products, gelatination of compounds in custard, concentration of ingredients in soft pastries kernel, stabilizing heated egg foam and creation of resistant texture.
  • Emulsification: Emulsifiers are acting as surfactants and being added to two non-mixing liquids increase emulsion stability by lowering the system adhesion. These materials are partially soluble in oil-water phase. So, they are collected in two phases intersection and decrease adhesion between phases. It is noteworthy that interphase decrease is not the only factor is emulsion formation and stability but elasticity of emulsifier molecule in the layers between two phases has significant role in emulsion stability. Phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins in the egg yolk have surfactants which form stable emulsion by lowering water-oil adhesion. The property is used in mayonnaise and salad sauce production
  • Foaming: Egg white protein, such as ovalbomin and especially Globulin, Lysosome are critically important in a manner that with formation of foam, omusine protein would create stability. Proteins behavior in intersection is effective on formation of foam. Surfactant proteins may control food aeration and texture by uniform distribution of small air bubble through the protein bed. Protein foaming and lowered adhesion are parallel actions. It depends on protein ability in unfolding the folds in intersections. In formation of foam, these proteins are partially connected and hold the air to form elastic films in water-air level. Trapped air increase sponge cakes volume. During the cake processing, its structure is stabilized by connection of more proteins.
  • Slow down the crystallization: In confectionary products and ice cream, egg is used n controlling water molecule crystallization and creation of a soft tissue and to create optimum flavor. Egg white forms thin films around sugar small crystals and prevents their association.
  • Odor, flavor and color:Egg contains fat which creates odor in food stuffs. Natural pigments in egg yolk (Xanthophyll, Xnazantine) are important in making spongy cakes and noodle.